U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC 20515
U.S. State Senate, Washington, DC 20515
U.S. Congressional Human Rights Foundation
Since 1991, the Bust of Kossuth Lajos can be seen in U.S. Capitol Rotunda. It was placed there by the efforts of American Hungarian Federation, a organization founded in 1906 in Cleveland, Ohio.
Regarding the Kossuth Lakos personality, we have to remind his speech to the Ohio State Legislature, February 16, 1852: "All for the People and All by the People; Nothing About the People Without the People - That is Democracy!"
And also, I will remind to everyone that on Kossuth Lajos Bust the following words can be read: "Father of Hungarian Democracy"
I do have to protest against the presence of Kossuth Lajos' Bust and remind to everyone that Kossuth Lajos was responsible for thousand of romanians killed during the 1848 revolution and if everyone still considers that Kossuth Lajos was symbol of democracy, we have to remind to the world that the noble concept was promoted only in his personal interpretation. Unfortunately a “democracy” only for Hungarians, built to defy the other nations living together in Transilvania.
Kossuth refused to send Romanian Hungarian revolution motto: "Freedom, equality, fraternity", and therefore Circular by Baron Kemeny, "Iancului(Avram Iancu, the leader of romanian armies in Transilvania-a/n) and drove his Valachs," in which the noble side, it clincher: "Wallachians! Your days are numbered! Leading formidabily my army, fortified in hundreds of battles, we will eradicate until the last runner, all rebels under arms. "
Romanian civilian population was subjected to an ethnic genocide resulted in 40,000 deaths and hundreds of villages and churches destroyed the ground.
The history records Kossuth Lajos's own vision and interpretation of liberty and democracy when he was addressing regarding the rights of Romanian native and majority population in Transilvania:
"Freedom will be hanging to all of you, your equal rights means that people who share the territory with the Hungarians will have to be absorbed by the Hungarians." -Excerpt from correspondence between Kossuth Lajos and Nicolae Balcescu- leader of revolutionary Romanians from Transilvania.
No army pact was possible between romanian and hungarian revolutionary armies to fight for their freedom under those circumstances against the Habsburgs.
Nevertheless to mention that Kossuth Lajos’s defying attitude against Romanians, Serbs, Germans and Slovaks was the reason why hungarians were defeated and the 1848 Revolution compromised.
Arguments against the use of the name of Kossuth Lajos
1. He was primarily a man whose role was decisive in the 1848 revolution in Hungary. Then there was a great journalist, orator and hungarian patriot . Exclusive Hungarian! Therefore, the ideals of the revolutionary movement of 1848 were generous only to the hungarian nation. They not only have not embraced the cause of Romanians as the majority and native nation in Transilvania, but have excluded it explicitly.
2. Kossuth did not recognize any rights outside of the Romanian nation "right" to dissolve the Hungarian nation. Articles in the background that he wrote in" Pesti Hirlap” -hungarian newspaper at those times- believes that the first objective is to be achieved "union" of Transylvania with Hungary, as "a condition for enlargement and development of the Hungarian nation!". For Kossuth, the fact the population of Transilvania most was the absolute Romanians was a secondary element, new state structure which sought restoration of the kingdom "Crown of St. Stephen." Kossuth wanted to take the romanians, but also Serbs, Slovaks and Saxons, which nearly a millennium of terror fail to take: national identity. "I never, but never coronet the holy Hungarian, nation or nationality other than Hungarian will not recognize. I know there are people and inferior people who speak another language, but more than one nation is not here. " (Magyarország története, VI / 1, Budapest, 1979, p.164)
3. It was totally devoid of understanding to the romanians, treating them with a condescending superiority, even with contempt, pointing towards her an unlimited and unwarranted intransigence. Remain as a reference document Proclamation of 10 October 1848 where Kossuth Lajos summon in terms of ultimatum and insulting the Romanians - calling them "rubbish ungrateful" - a return to "legal order and obedience." The imposing, in fact, to accept the union of Transylvania with Hungary and to waive their recognition as a nation. No wonder that the outcome of the Proclamation was to generate a confrontation of a particular gravity between Romanians and Hungarians.
Kossuth was the author of a genuine moral etnocid. Violence who appealed against the Romanians in the first half of 1849, when Transilvania was to be controlled by the Hungarian government troops, was predicted by Kossuth's proclamation of 22 December 1848, that speaks for itself about the lack of ability to understand and shortsighted policy which is characterized by the head of the Hungarian Revolution. He was naming romanians " paid mercenaries "," horde may despicable than life ", "Walachian bandits", and he simply urges the "extermination" of Romanians and all enemies. " (Liviu Maior, 1848 - 1849, Romanians and Hungarians in the revolution, Ed Enciclopedica, Bucharest, 1998, p. 378).
4. Head of the Hungarian revolution of 1848 -Kossuth Lajos, was categorically against any national emancipation of Romanians. After him, providing a social and economic situation for Romanians was acceptable only if they cease to be considered a separate nation. Kossuth declared in a speech in the Diet Pozsony (Bratislava): "The desire of Romanians to enjoy a special national existence policy is unworkable because it would lead to the destruction of the Hungarian unit. (...) It will be necessary, the sword will tranche issue. " (Bariţiu apud M.L., p. 223).
5. Nicolae Bălcescu himself (leader of revolutionary Romanians from Transilvania), after finding the data on Kossuth organization of a total expedition against Avram Iancu(the leader of the romanian armies), writes: "Kossuth has ruled weak and sick, he turned to me and more that a demagogue is not a man of state. He lost Hungary. " (N. Bălcescu, Opere, Corespondenţă, IV, p. 228).
6. Kosuth has approved the establishment of a regime of terror in Transilvania by appointment as a commissioner for civil Transylvania's László Csányi, an intimate of his visceral hatred that the Romanians and that pit them against "Courts of blood" and transformed the Hungarian national guards in the "hunting teams" who massacred women, children and elderly. Despite the insistent demands of General Bem, Kossuth refused to withdraw him on this paranoid tyrant of the Romanians, but the Saxons.
7. Kossuth sought to take an implacable hatred not only Romanians, but the Transylvanian Saxons because they objected to "fight for freedom Hungarian." In a letter on 17 March 1849, General Bem, Hungarian military commander in Transylvania says when conquest town by Russian army "to arrest the most outstanding leaders of Saxon revolt and hand them over to government Csányi. About the bastard's Kossuth attitude many said the letter sent by him on 1 April 1849, his Csányi commissioner Transylvania, in giving directions on how to be treated Saxons: "We find in embarrassment. (...) Anyway, put the Saxons to pay handsomely. To pay 2,000,000. (...)If you are opposed, orders to be executed ... "representative of Kossuth, Csányi will dictate personal shooting scholar Stephan Ludwig Roth 11mai in 1949." (See Folberth the process of St. L. Roth, Graz-Cologne 1959).
8. Hungarians themselves should revise its romantic image of Lajos Kossuth, which has nothing to do with real historical character that was it. Representative of radicalism Hungarian Kossuth was a "political agitator" that because of his excesses came into serious conflict with Count Istvan Szechenyi, considered today as "the greatest Hungarian." In "Fragments of political platform", in 1847, Szechenyi at Kossuth staff, warned: " you can continue to incite all nationalities to rage against the Hungarians, (...) to lash the common interests of monarchy until the last consequences and to fill your payback bill with your hate and venom from you - and to see later the results..." (MRL, XVII, p. 129).
9. Another negative opinion about Kosuth Lakos has Bertalan Szemere, former Minister of the Interior and then prime minister of his government. It's about Lajos Kossuth that it was carried to the top as a tyrant and ended as a coward, abandoned his country a week before the final fight of Siria( a place in Translivania-a/n) to flee to Turkey and will be accused of duplicity. In exile in Italy his autocratic style and manners of its intolerant will destroy any real influence on the expatriate community revolutionaries". Wikipedia Enciclopedia.
10. Last but not least, Kossuth unhealed wounds caused by the collective memory of generations of Romanian Transilvanians can not forget. During the period in which he led revolutionary Hungarian government have been destroyed 230 villages in Romania. In each village inhabited by Romanian died between 10 and 20 men. In Transylvania, the revolution of 1848 died 40,000 innocent civilian victims! (Romanians, in absolute majority, but also some Hungarians and Saxons alike, says Bariţiu-romanian historian). Comparing the French Revolution of 1789… died 15,000 people ... (Dorin Suciu-CEO of Romanian National Press Agency)
Ladies and gentelmen,
Members of the U.S. Congress,
I pledge with this petition to take in reconsideration the presence of Kossuth Lajos Bust in U.S. Capitol Rotunda.
For Romanians, the Kossuth Lajos is a detour from the principle of human rights, freedom and democracy and Romanian nation is paying in everyday a tribute and respect to those Romanians who sacrificed their lives for liberty and freedom from Hungarian and Habsburgs dictators in 1848 and 1849.
Hopefully, we have the chance to work together and we have always the chance to take an objective look back in the history and comemorate our right martyrs.
Thank you very much.
Stefan Cristian ARIASU
91 de ani de la înființarea Mișcării Legionare
8 hours ago